The species of the dolicaonine genus Pinobius MACLEAY, 1871 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae: Dolicaonina) of the Oriental, Palaearctic, and Australian Regions are revised. In all, 28 species are recognized, among them 14 species new to science: P. baculatus sp.n. (Indonesia: Java, Sumba), P. bifidus sp.n. (North India), P. bihamatus sp.n. (Myanmar), P. brevincisus sp.n. (South Vietnam), P. carinatus sp.n. (India: Maharashtra), P. discrepans sp.n. (Australia), P. extensus sp.n. (Papua New Guinea), P. firmilobatus sp.n. (Thailand, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), P. formidabilis sp.n. (Malaysia), P. imberbis sp.n. (India: Assam), P. inaequalis sp.n. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), P. linguatus sp.n. (Bangladesh), P. rotundatus sp.n. (India: Assam), P. subaequalis sp.n. (Indonesia: Sulawesi). All the species are (re-)described and illustrated. Pinobius vicinus (KRAATZ, 1859), previously regarded as a synonym of P. indicus (KRAATZ, 1859), is revalidated. The following synonymies are proposed: P. indicus (KRAATZ, 1859) = longipennis (CAMERON, 1931), syn.n.; P. paricolor (FAUVEL, 1878) = similis LAST, 1984, syn.n.; P. sparsiventris (FAUVEL, 1886) = javanus (CAMERON, 1936), syn.n. Pinobius pedatus (LEA, 1923) is tentatively regarded as a synonym of P. alatus (LEA, 1923). Lectotypes are designated for Dolicaon adjacens CAMERON, 1937, D. alatus LEA, 1923, D. indicus KRAATZ, 1859, D. javanus CAMERON, 1936, D. robustus KRAATZ, 1859, D. sparsiventris FAUVEL, 1886, and D. vicinus KRAATZ, 1859. The revision revealed that the previously described species had largely been misinterpreted, suggesting that nearly all literature records other than original descriptions are based on misidentifications. Primarily based on the morphology of the aedeagus, the species are assigned to four species groups. The zoogeography of the genus in the study region is discussed. The Indian Subcontinent, eastwards to Myanmar, is the region with the greatest diversity. The distributions of all the species are mapped. The examined material was largely collected at light sources, partly also sifted from leaf litter, at low to intermediate elevations. Only one of the studied specimens is teneral. A key to species and a checklist of the Pinobius species of the Oriental, Palaearctic, and Australian Regions are provided. The genus now comprises a total of 37 species, ten in the Afrotropical, twenty in the Oriental, and seven in the Australian Region. Only five species, none of them exclusive, have been recorded from the south of the Palaearctic Region (southern Arabian Peninsula, South Himalaya, South China), one of them of Afrotropical and the other four of Oriental affiliations. In an appendix, a dolicaonine species from the Afrotropical Region is described: Jarrigeus verberans sp.n. (Nigeria).