The Neotropical species of Anacaena THOMSON, 1859 are revised. Anacaena signaticollis FALL, 1924 is reported for the first time from the northern area of the Neotropical Region. All hitherto known species, including A. signaticollis are redescribed. Two new species, Anacaena hirsuta sp.n. and A. schoedli sp.n., are described. Twelve species are synomymized: A. attenuata (d'ORCHYMONT, 1921), A. cordobana KNISCH, 1924, A. debilis (SHARP, 1882), A. moreirai d'ORCHYMONT, 1921, A. morosa d'ORCHYMONT, 1942, A. morula d'ORCHYMONT, 1942, A. pescheti d'ORCHYMONT, 1921, A. peta d'ORCHYMONT, 1942, and A. sternalis LEECH, 1948 with A. suturalis (LECONTE, 1866); A. bireducta d'ORCHYMONT, 1942 with A. parvula SHARP, 1882; and A. perplexa d'ORCHYMONT, 1942 and A. perspicua d'ORCHYMONT, 1942 with A. solstitialis KIRSCH, 1873. Five species, A. attenuata, A. hirsuta, A. schoedli, A. solstitialis, and A. suturalis are united under the name "suturalis-group". Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for A. debilis and A. suturalis. A key to the species of the Neotropical Region is presented.